History: Basic conversation

Revision made 2 years ago by Francisco Presencia. Go to the last revision.

In this lesson you will learn to communicate with basic sentences and learn how they are built in Japanese. You are expected to be fluent in hiragana and katakana before going at this lesson, otherwise please review them thoroughly.

Sentence structure

A sentence in Japanese has the subject first, then the object(s) and finally the verb. The subject can be omitted and it will be implied from context, and the verb can be omitted as well and it'll mean "to be". For this English sentence:

I am Francisco.

In Japanese it'd be translated as:

わたしはフランシスコです。

This is the decomposition of that sentence:

  • わたし(私): the pronoun "I"
  • は: particle that indicates the preceding thing is the subject
  • フランシスコ: "Francisco" in katakana
  • です: formal particle in the end; no need for "to be", it is implied.

Personal pronouns in Japanese are a complex topic, so we will use 私(わたし) for "I", and for "you" and "he/she" we will omit them or use the name or last name of the person instead. This is the common way of addressing people in Japanese.

The general structure for "I am __" is:

わたしは__です。

When we want to say the opposite, "I am not __", then we use:

わたしは__じゃありません。

Sentence parts follow the same pattern, first the word and then a particle that affects that word. These particles are really varied and a particle can have different meanings. Some examples:

  • わたしは: "は" for the subject
  • わたしが: "が" for the object, similar to "to me" or "for me"
  • わたしの: "の" possesive "my" or more literally "of mine"
  • レストランに: "に" similar to "to", for a place you are moving towards
  • レストランで: "で" for a place you are in

If I wanted to say "my dog is really cute" I could say it this way:

わたしのいぬはかわいいです。

Exercise: say 3 different things that you are and 3 things that you are not in Japanese. Use a Google translate to search for the adjectives and/or nouns. Example: "I am an engineer".

Exercise: describe 3 things that you have. Example: "My book is thick".

Introductions

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Asking questions

To ask a question add "か" to the end of the sentence. This is the equivalent of "?" in Japanese. You can build simple sentences with this, for instance asking "am I Francisco?":

わたしはフランシスコですか。

However, soon we want to start to ask more elaborate, open-ended questions.  For this we will also need interrogation particles. Let's ask "what is your name?":

なまえはなんですか。

  • なまえ(名前): "the name"
  • は: subject particle
  • なん(何): "what"
  • ですか: polite question termination

In this sentence, "you" should be implied by the context. However, depending on the context the same sentence could be applied for "him/her".